Make a brief overview of the historic places of the city. The upland area have appeared back in the nineteenth century. At first this place was called the village of Gavrylivka on behalf of one of the first inhabitants. The emergence of the village was preceded by the building of the John Greavez agricultural machines plant and a similar Matias' plant in the 1880's. So many workers of both plants began to build their homes not far from the places of their work. This part of the city was considered the outskirts with numerous windmills and mud brick houses. As it turned out later, the construction of more than 25 mills was not profitable: it was a loss to carry grain uphill and than the flour back to the village. Therefore, the owners of the mills moved closer to the villages, only a few remained in the same place. For a long time, a group of 5-6 mills still remained on the upland. Also a single mill stood at the edge of the upland, right at the place where the present sports complex and the "Energy" stadium is. Unfortunately, windmills have not survived to this day. During the Second World War, the last three, belonging to Mikhailenko, Popeshko and Bobukov, were burned down.
At the beginning of the 20th Century Gavrylivka markedly changed, becoming a so-called upland district of Berdyansk. Interesting is the historical fact: Before the revolution on the place of present day's ladder, built in 1954, which connects the central part of the city with the Nagornyi Mikrorayon (formerly Gavrylivka), there was a wooden stairway, painted with ocher. It was pretty steep, uncomfortable as only two pedestrians could climb it.
But not only Gavrilovka can be credited to the outskirts of pre-revolutionary Berdyansk.
The village of Merlika is one of the earliest settlements near Berdyansk. Judge for yourself: the emergence of the farm belongs to the first half of the XIX century. In 1832 Captain Engineer Manganari made a map of the northern part of the Azov Sea and the coast. Also he first pointed out the coordinates of the farm, but without a name. Later on the map, drawn up in 1878-1885, it was marked with the name - the village of Merlich.
The reference book "All Berdyansk and his county" (ed. 1911) reports the names of those who lived in the farm. Naturally, there lived the family of T.M. Merlak together with his sons. Also the families Miroshnichenko and Rebains were the inhabitans of this village. They were mainly engaged in agriculture.
In the 1930th it was decided to create a sanatorium for children. So all the inhabitants of the village had to move to another district of the city.
In the 1820th the first Lutheran church members from Württemberg came to Berdiansk and formed four colonies in Berdiansk region.
Since 1915 Lutheran Church, the German club, German college functioned in Berdiansk, also the German newspaper “Der Botschafter” was issued. Names of many townships and localities were changed from original to Russians.
District Makorty is still one of the most picturesque corners of Berdiansk. Nowadays it’s a place where people have dachas and resort houses, however 100 years ago it was quite densely populated. Also Makorty was full of vineyards and orchards. From the northern part it was bordered by Petrovska village. Now it’s another district of Berdiansk. Unfortunately we know nothing about the origin of the name Makorty.
That time there were a lot of so-called municipal gardens all over the city, especially in German settlements. However, as time went by, the most part of them became privately owned. People started to build their houses of vineyards there. All in all only small territory left. Public events and festivals were held there. This small territory also disappeared during cold and hungry 1921-1922 when people cut the trees to heat their houses.
Interesting is the fact that, according to Kryzhanovski’s records, government tried to develop silk production, but failed as the climate was not suitable for the silk warms.
All the time the territory of Berdiansk sank in green, there were a lot of gardens, vineyards and orchards. Viticulture was extremely developed in Berdiansk that times. Many different grape varieties from different regions of Ukraine, France, Crimea and even USA were imported to our city.
Vine merchandising was also developed in Berdiansk that times. The citizens themselves also drank a lot of vine. Probably this is one of the reasons why there were no infectious diseases in summer time.
Unfortunately nowadays viticulture in Berdiansk is no more existing. It had not survived through two world wars and the period of Ukraine’s establishment. So nowadays this district of Berdiansk is inhabited and now it turned to a suburb and has no economic importance.
There’s no other place that can compare with Berdiansk spit in natural and environmental resources from perfect beaches to it’s famous curative mud.
The place where the spit is situated is special because the air from the fields that surround Berdiansk mixes with the sea breeze and creates the extremely useful and valuable atmosphere for recreation and rest.
Since ancient times the spit attracted people from different places. Kimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Nogaians settled here. From XVII century on tribes of Slavs live on the banks of the Sea of Azov. On “the Great Book of Drawing” - one of the first maps, issued in the XVI century, the Sea of Azov, the Berdinask spit and the river Berda were already identified there. The first settlements on the spit have appeared a long time before the seaport and the city were built. The main part of the inhabitants were retired soldiers of the Petrovskaia tower. At the beginning of the XIX century the fishing village appeared on the spit. It was founded by merchants Tchetverikov and Kobozev.
One of the common questions is about the spit emergence. Many scientists tried to find an answer and now there are many different theories beginning from opinion that it was washed by waves to theory that it originally was a right bank of the river Berda.
Spit - is a deposition bar or beach landform off coasts or lake shores. It develops in places where re-entrance occurs, such as at a cove's headlands, by the process of longshore drift by longshore currents. The drift occurs due to waves meeting the beach at an oblique angle, moving sediment down the beach in a zigzag pattern. This is complemented by longshore currents, which further transport sediment through the water alongside the beach. These currents are caused by the same waves that cause the drift. The Berdiansk spit is one of 25 spits of the Sea of Azov. It is also one of the biggest spits. It’s length is 22 km, width varies from 60 to 1200 m. The territory can be conditionally divided into three parts: the Near Spit, the Middle Spit and the Farther Spit. The Near Spit has a reach variety of landscape and has various lakes and Lymans with curative mud. The lake Tchervone is called the Swan Lake because mute swans live there.
The Middle Spit has a form of a narrow strip where many recreation and resort institutions, hotels and restaurants are situated. Sandy beaches, waves of the tender sea, fresh sea air, full of healing elements and steppe grass aroma influences on respiratory and the immune system, metabolism and increases the vitality of the body.
The Farther Spit is the place where one of the oldest lighthouses on the Sea of Azov, so-called Nizhniy Lighthouse stands. It enlightens the way to the Berdiansk harbor since 1838. This part of the Spit is proclaimed a nature monument and is protected by the law as a natural park. More than 150 plant spieces and over 210 kinds of birds live there.
In Berdiansk bay, three km away from the city you can find two islands – the Big and the Small Dzendzyk. These islands are the home for more than 5000 birds of different species. That is why these places are considered an ornithological reservation.
The first plan of the city had been created and developed with the participation of count Vorontsov and adopted by architect Banbolizi in 1862. The city on it had a form of triangle, divided on 29 rectangular blocks which had Roman numerals. On that plan the city had three main districts: the Soldier sloboda, the central part and the German sloboda. Each district had had it's own numbering, streets, squares and avenues. From the east the city was ended by the today's Vostochnyi (the Eastern) avenue, from the western - by the Zakhidnyi (the Western) avenue, from the southern side it was the swaside with Primorskaya square and from the nothern the city was bordered by the Vorontsov street and the foot of the mountain. All the settlements beyond these borders were considered villages.
Only in 1952 the close neighbor villages became the parts of the city. Since now the layout of the avenues is the same, however after the revolution of 1917 the names of the streets had changed.
"Stone Polovtsian statues". Duration - 1 hour. Berdyansk Regional Museum (further BRM) 3-65-70. Pedestrian, under the open sky.
"Historical part of the old city". Duration - 2 hours. BRM 3-65-70. Pedestrian, with a visit to the memorial house-museum P.P. Schmidt
"Historical Places and Sights of Berdyansk". Duration - 2 hours. BRM 3-65-70. Combined - bus and pedestrian.
"Past and Present". Duration - 2 hours. BRM 3-65-70. Walking excursion downtown.
"Berdyansk spit. Nature. Mastering Protection". BRM 3-65-70. Bus excursion on the Berdyansk spit.
"The feat is glorious your countrymen". BRM 3-65-70. Bus excursion with a visit to the Museum "Podvig".
"Aquatorium of the Sea of Azov". BRM 3-65-70. Flow / water.
"Berdyansk - in its past, present and future." "Greval" (06153) 36594 (067) 2702383, (050) 9724712. Combined bus and pedestrian.
Familiarity with the history of the city, the names of glorious fellow countrymen, memorable signs, memorials. Visiting the observation deck. Walk along the Seaside Square. Visiting zoo club "Neon".
"Evening breeze" "Greval". The evening boat ride along the Berdyansk Gulf.
Cognitive excursion about the flora and fauna of the Sea of Azov, its medicinal properties and the birds that live on the island. Zaporizhzhia. "Greval"
Bus tour of Zaporozhye city. Visiting the island of Khortytsya, the Museum of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, the Zaporizhzhya Sich, the horse theater.
Slavianogorsk - Raisin. "Greval". Bus excursion.
Visiting SvyatouSpenska Lavra. Raisin - miraculous icon of Pischansky God's Mother. Visiting the font. Uman "Greval". Combined bus and pedestrian.
The combined bus and pedestrian excursion introduces the first historical information about the settlement of the Northern Azov Sea; with the founding of the city of Berdyansk (expedition captain ND Cretan, Admiral A. C. Greig, laying and construction of the pier, construction of the waveguide), with the role of MS Vorontsov in the birth of the city. Getting acquainted with the historical areas of the city, the emergence of the streets of the city, the first plan of development Berdyansk. Coat of arms and city flag (description and date of approval). Acquaintance with Berdyansk of the 19th century as a cultural center of the Northern Azov Region (male gymnasium - construction, opening, first director of the gymnasium F. Ya. Voronyi, graduate of Berdyansk gymnasium V. A. Khavkin). The birth of industry in the city at the end of the 19th century. The first city mayor of the city of N.S. Кобозев, and his gift to the city - a winter theater. Schmidt family in Berdyansk.
Development of resort affairs in Berdyansk (basis of the resort, medical factors, modern health resorts of Berdyansk). Our prominent countrymen - P.D. Osipenko, E.M. Rudneva, І.І. Brodsky, P.I. Nishchinsky, Ya.S. Hast. In the city and the province (visit to the memorial complex - "Eternal Flame" and graves of sailors-paratroopers). Modern Berdyansk city is a state-owned resort.
A tour of the Berdyansk spit. Duration 1.5 hours. Combined - bus and pedestrian. The tour introduces the unique corner of nature - the Berdyansk spit, with the sandbones of the Sea of Azov (the hypothesis of the education of the cat, the names of the horses, the characterization of the keel of the Northern Azov Sea, the presence of estuaries), with the native of the village of Kriva Kos (village Sedovo) G.Ya. Sedov - an outstanding polar explorer. Secondary spit formation - about. Small Dzenjik. Getting to know Berdyansk spit, the smallest place. Characteristics and acquaintance with the North and South bay. The climate of the Berdyansk spit. Berdyansk spit - a recreation area. The history of the emergence of the Dalne Kosa settlement, Lower-Berdyansk lighthouse. The animal and plant world of the Berdyansk spit: reptiles, birds, animals; Plants of the coastal, swamp zone, meadow, salt-bearing plants. Protecting the natural resources of the Berdyansk Spit. Guided tour of the Berdyansk Gulf. Duration - 1 year.
The boat tour introduces the history of the creation and development of the Berdyansk Sea Commercial Port (the grounds of the pier, the formation of trade, the development of the city, port authorities, the construction of the waveguide). Navigation signs of the Berdyansk Gulf (Verkhne-Berdyansk lighthouse, radio beacon, laser beacon), navigable canal. The first historical information about the Sea of Azov, the names of the sea, area, salinity, rivers, volcanoes of the Sea of Azov. General characteristics of the Azov Sea bays, the Berdyansk Gulf - one of the large bays of the Sea of Azov. Flora and fauna of the Azov Sea - the fauna of the bottom, zoo and phytoplankton, mollusks, fish of the Azov Sea, dolphins, birds of the Berdyansk Gulf.
The Seven Wonders of the Northern Azov Sea. Duration - 3 hours. Combined - bus and pedestrian. The tour introduces the unique natural wealth of the Northern Azov Sea. The first miracle of the Northern Azov Sea is the park named after them. Schmidt is the central park of the city. The second miracle is the Berdyansk spit (the hypothesis of education, the spit of the Azov Sea, the climate, the recreation area). The third miracle - the islets of the Malyi and Velykyi Dzendzik (characteristic of the islands, the North Bay), the Azov Sea - the main characteristics, names, flora and fauna. Fourth miracle - landscape reserve - location, area, types of plants and fauna.
Reserve "Oslyachi Vukha". Duration 6 hours. Combined - bus and pedestrian. The tour introduces the geological monument of nature - the Preserved Ears reserve, located on the banks of the Byrd River (general characteristics, geological feature). Salt Solanka. Plants of the steppe zone - herbs, shrubs. Pernot inhabitants of the reserve. Animals Kuybyshevsky and Volodarsky forest. Duration - 8 hours; Combined - bus and pedestrian. The tour introduces the history of steppe forests in our region. Forest - natural wealth, the importance of forest in human life. Soil, soil characteristics, forest bands and their purpose, rivers. History of the establishment of laws for the protection of forests. The first artificial forests -Velikoanadolsky, Volodarsky, and Kuybyshevsky. The role of V.E. von Graff in the planting of artificial forests in the North Azov Sea. Experienced tree planting in the Kashlagach Beam area. Characteristics of the forest as a complex natural education. Animals, birds, forest plants (mosses, mushrooms, grasses, shrubs, shrubs, trees, growth). Forest protection.
Reserve "Stone Graves" smt. Cock Duration - 8 hours. Combined - bus and pedestrian. The tour introduces the nature reserve (area, geological, biological and historical and archaeological uniqueness). The Beastash note, the first information about the appearance of Polovtsians in the Azov Sea, the attitude of Polovtsy and Rusych, the arrival of the Mongol-Tatars in the Northern Azov Sea, the battle at Kalka. Reserve plants - endemics, steppe grasses, shrubs. Insects, reptiles, birds, animals that live on the territory of the reserve. Sightseeing tour of the city of Berdyansk, duration - 3 hours. Combined - bus and pedestrian. About the centuries-old history and the grounds of Berdyansk, with a visit to the Berdyansk Spit, the railway station, etc. Proletarsky, a monument to P.D. Osipenko, Polovtsian stone women, observation deck, Shmidt Park, Primorskaya square with a lot of monuments, Lutheran church.